Girls genitalia off Meters. fasciculata and methods to possess mating connect coupling. (A) Virgin lady genitalia during the frontal evaluate. (B) Men genitalia from pre-copula male, addressing the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Vaginal supplement, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you may S-IX. (F) Men genitalia doing the latest coupling of plug: ventral view of vaginal capsule and you may metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out of the body of men by the a beneficial telescopic course. (G) Male genital pill detached of male’s human body, having knob regulators brought about, gonostyli facing the contrary status regarding the first. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you can S-IX, in which sternum S-IX assumes the fresh status into the male’s abdomen. (I) Mating plug in more detail, proving the new horizontal compressing of gonocoxites. (J) The newest genital chamber away from an effective connected women: the fresh membranous part that has the brand new mating plug connected.
Regarding the non-Melipona species (F
longipes, S. aff. Postica, and P. minima), i noticed robust knob valves that have intermediary curvature and you may a diminished spatha ( Contour 1)paring the general morphology from cock valves and you will spatha out of Yards. fasciculata to another read varieties, i unearthed that both Meters. flavolineata and you may M. seminigra provides thin cock valves which have lowest curve. However, M. seminigra enjoys smaller valves than simply Yards. flavolineata, and you can a well established spatha when compared with additional Melipona ( Contour 1).
Description out of hypothesized plugging actions
The past standing away from mating plugs in to the mated female matched up the fresh position of your male’s instinct while in the copulation on account of “J” way and you will location below woman’s gut ( Figure 4C). In every physogastric queens out-of Yards. fasciculata, i noticed the fresh mating plug connected to the membranous genital pockets because of the manhood regulators, to the spatha skin based with the the feminine ventral piece, placed under new gonopore ( Shape 3J). I propose that new mating connect process was brought about in the event that male genital tablet is irreversibly protruded away from male’s human body, which results in altered ranks of your gonostyli, dick regulators, and gonocoxites.
The brand new mating collection of Yards. fasciculata, predicated on a video list from mating out-of a connected species. From top to bottom: (A) men in-flight, trying to standing alone across the lady; (B) organized male, indicating sets away from ft fitted over the female’s looks; (C) male improving the abdomen of the women; (D) male leaving the female immediately following successful mating, that is, this new mating connect accessory. In every parts, male wings is actually illustrated so you’re able to depict their course through the mating, based on Supplementary Videos S1 .
The fresh mating group of M. fasciculata, based on videos listing off mating off a related varieties. All the way through: (A) men in flight, seeking to position itself across the ladies; (B) positioned men, indicating pairs off legs installing along side woman’s human anatomy; (C) men raising the instinct of the female; (D) male making the female just after winning mating, that’s, the fresh mating plug connection. Throughout pieces, men wings are represented to help you represent the path throughout the mating, according to Second Video clips S1 .
According to the investigations between resting condition away from genital medicine and brought about state out-of mating plugs, its useful morphology, as well as in video clips facts for the mating choices of a closely related species ( Supplementary Video S1 ), i suggest that leading to out-of mating connect occurs in 5 hypothetical steps ( Numbers 3 and you may cuatro):
Shortly after immobilizing the feminine looks, www.besthookupwebsites.org/local-hookup/canberra the male inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII beneath the women tergum T-VI, training it ( Contour 4C).
Since women vaginal chamber is actually unwrapped ( Shape 3A), a man gonostyli matches the new female’s genital region. Immediately after placement new sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out of the male’s system on the new female’s vaginal chamber in addition to the genital product, from the a telescopic way ( Shape 3F). The new insertion of men genital medicine into the ladies genital chamber is not followed closely by the brand new gonostyli, hence flow backwards from inside the techniques, remaining away from females vaginal chamber ( Profile 3G).